Journal Issues

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  • 1- 1- 1- Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in Treating Pediatric Chronic Rhinosinusitis: The Aseer Region Experience

    Abstract: 

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of functional endoscopic sinus
    surgery (FESS) in treating chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in Aseer Region children, and to look at the
    most likely etiologies that might be attributed to the need of surgical intervention in these children.
    Methods: Hospital charts for 47 children underwent FESS for CRS were retrospectively reviewed. We
    looked at the demographic information, clinical presentation, preoperative CT-scan reports and
    indications for the surgical procedure. Exclusion criteria include cases of FESS done by other surgeons,
    children below 4years and above 15 years, allergic fungal sinusitis, cystic fibrosis, mucocele and cases
    of antro-choanal polyps. Results: The majority of patients 38 (81%) presented with CRS were under
    the age of 8 years. The mean age was 6.5 years at presentation. There were 31 (66 %) males and 16
    (34)% females. The persistent nasal discharge was the main symptom in 38 (81%) of the children. Eight
    (17%) children only presented with an associated nasal obstruction that was attributed directly to
    adenoid hypertrophy. Nineteen (40.4%) patients had obstructive anatomical variants and 28 (59.6%)
    patients were diagnosed having allergic rhinitis. Forty- one (87.2%) patient improved and required no
    further treatment and the remaining 6 (12.8%) patients required revision. Conclusions: Results of the
    present study are commensurate with findings from prior research in that they confirm that the FESS
    procedure is recommended to those who fail medical therapy and continue to have bothersome
    symptoms. Congenital anatomical obstruction (concha bullosa and Haller cells) followed by allergic
    rhinosinusitis havebeen found to be the most common etiological factors among the experimental group
    of children treated surgically.

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  • 1- 1- 2- An Adjusted h-index: A New Recipe to Evaluate the Researcher’s Productivity

    Abstract: 

    To present an equation that will solve some of the problems related to the utilization of h-index in researcher’s evaluation. Methods: Adjusted h-index TOTAL = (Ad h-index1) + (Ad h-index2) + (Ad h-index3) and so on till (Ad h-index N) (N = Number of last publication). (Ad h-index1: for the First (1) publication); (Ad h-index1) = (A1)*(B1)*(C1)/(D1); A1 = H –index of the journal where the publication (1) had been published; B1 = the number of citations for publication (1); C1 = {(number of authors +1) – (order of author)}/(number of authors for publication 1); D1 = 1 + current year-year of publication (1). Results: The obtained results enlightening the superiority of the new equation to furnish the appropriate recognition to a scientist. Conclusion: The proposed equation will solve many of the problems linked to the h-index.

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  • 1- 1- 3- Common Musculoskeletal Disorders in an Underserviced Area of Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia

    Abstract: 

    To identify the common musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) present in the sample population of Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The data for this cross sectional study was collected from 112 respondents who visited the community service medical camp organized by King Khalid University. Results: Knee pain was found to be the most common musculoskeletal disorder present in the region. Low back pain, shoulder pain and neck pain are among the other reported pain. The study also analyzes the relation between demographical profiles of respondents and its relation to MSD. Conclusions: A correlation analysis proves that body mass index (BMI) and duration of pain is negatively correlated to musculoskeletal pain.

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  • 1- 1- 4- Social Networking Trends Among Female Health College Students in King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia

    Abstract: 

    The present research was to study the social networking trends among female health college students in KKU Abha, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A pretested questionnaire was developed consisting of 11 items concerning with individual's usage of social media. All female students of colleges in King Khalid University were considered for the study. Results: A total of 466 female students participated in the research. 96% of the students had registered themselves at some social networking site. Whatsapp was found to be the most popular application (17.4%) followed by Twitter (16.2%), YouTube (15.2%), Google-plus (13%), Facebook (13%), Skype (10.7%) and others. Majority of students (64%) accessed Google for their academic assignments and information gathering.76% of students had practice of accessing to SNS on a daily basis. Majority (43%) of students’ accessed social networking sites late night before sleep or after college hours (32%).The most common reason for SNS usage was for Entertainment (45%). The Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between the frequency of SNS usage and student's average academic grades (r = 0.064, p = 0.174). Conclusions: The female students at the university are very active on SNS. The social media platforms are mainly used for social interactions or entertainment. There was no statistically significant correlation between social media usage and academic outcomes. Social media platforms should be considered as an effective and informal media in engaging students for academic purposes.

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  • 1- 1- 5- Determinants of First Dental Visit in a Group of Sudanese Children: A Dental-Hospital Based Study

    Abstract: 

    Rosai-Dorfman Disease is a rare disorder. We report a case of ten-month Saudi male infant who presented with persistent painless left neck mass for the previous three months, accompanied by fever, odynophagia, night sweats and weight loss. Physical examination showed enlarged left upper cervical lymph node measuring up to five to seven cm and filling up the gap anterior to sternocleidomastoid muscle and angle of mandible. It was cystic, fluctuant, semi-mobile, non tender. Computed tomography (CT) neck with IV contrast were performed, which revealed non enhancing hypodense lymph node at upper cervical region. Lymph node was surgically removed. Histopathology confirmed Rosia-Dorfman Disease. The patient made good recovery and was discharged on oral prednisolone 10mg daily for one month. A one -year follow-up did not reveal any recurrences.

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  • 1- 2- 1- Isolation of Acanthamoeba species from fresh water sources in southern regions of Saudi Arabia

    Abstract: 

    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Acanthamoeba species and other FLAs in freshwater sources in southern regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to estimate the prevalence of their existence in these areas.
    Methods: Water samples from both fresh water course and hot springs (n = 15) were collected from five different zones in Aseer region, southern western parts of the kingdom. Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba species and other FLAs were carried out from these water sources (fresh water course and hot spring). The methods included filtration, in vitro culture and incubation for up to three weeks for the selected samples according to standard methods.
    Results: Examination of water samples by direct microscopic methods showed no amoebic parasites among all of the 15 samples collected from five different sites. However, when the water samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar (NNA), four (26.7%) of the 15 samples showed growth of Acanthamoeba species. Principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that the water bodies/ sources that were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. shared a common natural characteristic that the water bodies were exposed to contamination.
    Conclusion: The study demonstrated that Acanthamoeba spp. were prevalent in some sites (3 out 5 sites were positives; 60%), low in two sites (1 out 3 samples) while absent in two sites (0 out of six samples). More comprehensive research is needed to find out the true prevalence of these parasites and factors affecting their existence.

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  • 1- 2- 2- Attitudes and perceptions of community pharmacists to antibiotic dispensing and microbial resistance. A study in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Abstract: 

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to study and explore the attitudes, perceptions, and dispensing habits of community pharmacist about antibiotic usage and microbial resistance. Material/Methods: It is a descriptive study conducted during April 2015 - July 2015in community pharmacies located in multiple places of Southern region of Saudi Arabia. 120 pharmacists were selected randomly and were invited to participate in the study by structured interview answering the question in the questionnaire. Results: The results of the present study included from both the chain pharmacies (n=84) and single pharmacies (n=36). Most of them had a Bachelor of Pharmacy (80.8%) and few had Pharm.D. (19.2%) degree. Attitudes related to the problem of resistance were attributed external responsibility, to patients, to physicians, to other pharmacies. Some attitudes were identified that could lead to antibiotic dispensing without a prescription. These were commercial interest and pressure from the patient. Conclusions: To conclude the present study, the community pharmacist had positive attitude towards improving antibiotic use and bacterial resistance. However, we are of opinion that strong regulation coupled with education intervention both to the pharmacist and public would be the way forward to tackle this issue of fight against antimicrobial resistance

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  • 1- 2- 3- Screening for dyslipidemia among Saudi adults attending a primary health care center in Saudi Arabia

    Abstract: 

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and to identify its association with obesity among Saudi adults attending a primary health care center in Abha City, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This study followed a cross-sectional study design. A consecutive sample was applied to screen 457 apparently healthy Saudi adults aged above 20 years. Participants’ weight and height were assessed and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Results: Regarding dyslipidemia, 17.3% had hypercholesterolemia, 5% had hypertriglyceridemia, 47.9% had low HDL- C serum levels, 17.9% had high LDL-C serum levels, 12.3% had TC/HDL-C ratio >6, 30.9% had TG/HDL-C ratio >3.8 and 23.2% had LDL-C/HDL-C ratio >3.3. Male participants had significantly higher proportions of hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio than females (20.9% and 10.9%, respectively, p=0.007 for hypercholesterolemia; 20.9%; and 12.7%, respectively, p=0.029 for high LDL-C and 15.8% and 6.1%, respectively, p=0.002 for TC/HDL-C). LDL-C serum levels were lowest among elderly participants and highest among youngest participants (p=0.007). Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C ratio, TG/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were highest among obese and overweight participants (29.1% and 14.2%, respectively, p<0.001 for hypercholesterolemia; 8.2% and 5.3%, respectively, p=0.018 for hypertriglyceridemia; 26.9% and 14.2%, respectively, p=0.006, for LDL-C; 18.7% and 11.9%, respectively, p=0.004, for TC/HDL-C; 40.3% and 28.3%, respectively, p=0.014 for TG/HDL-C ratio; and 31.3% and 24.3%, respectively, p<0.001 for LDL-C/HDL-C ratio). Participants’ HDL-C and LDL-C serum levels differed significantly according to their family history of dyslipidemia (p=0.046 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Prevalence of dyslipidemia is high among Saudi adults attending primary health care centers, especially among males, obese and elderly subjects in addition to those with positive family history of dyslipidemia. Community-based intervention strategies are needed to prevent and manage cardiovascular risk factors. Health education for attendants of primary health care centers regarding healthier lifestyles should be emphasized.

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  • 1- 2- 4- Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of siwak (Salvadora persica)

    Abstract: 

    Objective: To investigate hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Salvadora persica against paracetamol intoxication in rats and its correlation with antioxidant activity. Methods: In vitro lipid peroxidation was determined by Ohkawa H et al., 1979 and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was determined by deoxyribose degradation method in comparison to standard ascorbic acid. Albino Wister rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 g were divided into five groups. Group 1 received normal saline. Groups 2 to 5 received 2 g/kg paracetamol for 3 days and then groups 3 and 4 received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Salvadora persica whereas group 5 received silymarin 100 mg/kg from 4th day to 10 day. On 0th day (one day before the dosing) and 11th day blood was collected by retro orbital puncture. Serum was separated and biochemical parameters measured. Results: IC50 value of the aqueous extract of Salvadora persica was found to be329.67μg and 351.57 μg and 191.63 μg and 184.96 μg for ascorbic acid respectively for lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical activity. Administration of aqueous extract of Salvadora persica (200 and 400 mg/kg) markedly reduced the biochemical parameters. Average percentage change in these parameters was significantly reduced on 11th day. Conclusion:Aqueous extract of Salvadora persica possessed significant hepatoprotective activity, in accordance with its in vitro antioxidant activity. The in vitro antioxidant activity further provides support to the hepatoprotective activity and provides insight in understanding the probable mechanism of action of the Salvadora persica as hepatoprotective.

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  • 2- 1- 1- Assessment of Primary Health Care Physicians’ Knowledge and Practices about Diabetes Mellitus in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Abstract: 

    Objective: To assess primary care physicians’ knowledge and practice related to diabetes mellitus in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Subjects and Methods: A total of 153 primary health care (PHC) physicians were included from Aseer Region. Each participant physician was interviewed using a study questionnaire that comprised personal characteristics data sheet and PHC physicians’ assessment of knowledge (15 questions) and practices (10 questions). Results: Excellent knowledge and practice grades were attained by32.7% and 23.5%, respectively, while unsatisfactory knowledge and practice grades were attained by 8.5% and 22.2% of PHC physicians. PHC physicians who had significantly more “excellent” knowledge grades were older (p<0.001), non-Saudi (p<0.001), higher qualified (p=0.001), with more postgraduate experience (p<0.001), with better grades of practice (p<0.001), and those who attended courses on diabetes (p=0.006). PHC physicians who had significantly more “excellent” practice grades were older (p<0.001), non-Saudi (p=0.041), having Doctorate/Fellowship (p<0.001), having more years of postgraduate experience (p=0.001), seeing more diabetic patients (p<0.001), and those who attended courses on diabetes (p=0.008). Conclusions: PHC physicians’ knowledge and practice grades are suboptimal. Better knowledge and practice grades about diabetes are present among older, non-Saudi, higher qualified PHC physicians, with more postgraduate experience, better grades of practice, and those who attend courses on diabetes. Continuing medical education should be enforced for all PHC physicians, especially Saudi, younger, newly graduated PHC physicians.

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  • 2- 1- 2- Umbilical Cord Blood Leptin Concentration – What Does It Imply?

    Abstract: 

    Objective: The significance of the placental or umbilical cord leptin levels remains unresolved in spite of their well-documented function. In the current study we investigated, whether, leptin concentration that mirrors the fetal health is influenced by type of birth, placental weight, cord length, sex, weight, pO2 and pH parameters. Methods: Umbilical cord blood samples were collected post placental delivery (n=40) from both normal and caesarian deliveries with all demographical information. Leptin concentration was determined form cord blood plasma, while fresh cord blood was used for blood gas analysis. Results: The average leptin concentrations of male and female fetal umbilical cord were 16.6 ± 1.6 and 18.2 ± 0.6 ng/ml respectively. The maximum threshold of the umbilical vein leptin concentrations were 15.3 ± 0.6 and 18.3 ± 1.2 ng/ml in male and females respectively. There was a direct relationship observed with the birthweight and leptin concentration. The mean pH 7.117 ± 0.02 and pO2 19.74 ± 2.01 mmHg did not significantly correlate with leptin levels. Discussion: Leptin concertation were significantly high in normal delivery than caesarian section. Placental weight or umbilical cord length did not affect the leptin concentration. We did not observe any significant alteration in pH or pO2 levels influencing leptin. However, the most remarkable correlation was leptin with birth weight, which explains the best utilization of the maternal fuel resources in the development of the fetus. We did observe a level in female babies. Conclusion: Overall, the placental leptin concentration mirrors the health status of the fetus and weight metabolism.

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  • 2- 1- 3- Clinical Diagnostic Challenges of Pilomatricoma: Retrospective Study From Southern Region of Saudi Arabia

    Abstract: 

    Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological features of PMC, including the patient age at clinical presentation, gender, anatomical location, tumor size, preoperative clinical and histopathologic diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective study to analyze all cases of PMC diagnosed in two hospitals from August 2008 to January 2017 in Southern Region, Saudi Arabia. Detailed medical records and histopathologic material review were done for all cases of pilomatricoma. Cases were identified using the search engine of each hospital electronic filing system. Results: 23 cases with an age range from 8 to 68 years (mean 28.8). The majority of patients were in their second (39%) and fourth (26%) decades of life with a female to male ratio of 1.2 to 1.1. Majority of the cases were noted in the neck (43.5%), followed by head region (30%). The tumor size ranged from 0.3 to 4.0 cm (mean 1.6). The most common preoperative clinical misdiagnosis was sebaceous cyst (34.8%). All cases were confirmed histopathologically as pilomatricoma. All tumors were excised surgically. Conclusions: PMC has a wide variety of clinical presentations and is commonly misdiagnosed with other dermatological conditions. PMC should be included in the differential diagnosis of nodules, particularly in the head and neck region. Increasing the clinical awareness and familiarity with the tumor may lead to accurate clinical diagnosis.

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  • 2- 1- 4- Awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Male Medical Students in King Khalid University, Abha

    Abstract: 

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of male students about STDs. Study Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Khalid University after taking the clearance from the ethical committee using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Around 31.13% participants knew that a person who has genital herpes must have open sore to transmit this infection whereas 21.85% students aware of its trans-placental transmission to baby. Nearly one third (32.45%) respondents gave the correct response regarding the HIV transmission through a person carrying STDs,Whereas 21.19% knew that there is no vaccine for Chlamydia. More than half of the participants 54.97% were aware of Human Papilloma Virus. Nearly one third the students (28.48%) had knowledge that having anal sex increases a person's risk of getting Hepatitis B and only 22.53% were aware about the vaccine that can protect from Hepatitis B.
    Conclusion: Academic activities like workshops, seminars and quizzes about raising the awareness should be organized by the experts and encourage the students to make effective participation.Adolescent health education programmes focused on STDs should be included in medical curriculum.

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  • 2- 2- 1- Knowledge Regarding Use of Oral Hygiene Aids Among Dental Interns in Saudi Arabia

    Abstract: 

    Context: Toothbrushes with dentifrice are the most widely used method of selfperformed
    mechanical plaque control. Plaque removal exclusively by tooth brushing is
    difficult in critical inter-dental areas. Several inter-dental cleaning aids have been
    developed and are available like dental floss, toothpick, uni-tufted and proxa brush.
    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge regarding use of oral hygiene
    aids among dental interns in Saudi Arabia. Setting and Design: The present study is a
    cross-sectional questionnaire based study. Methodology: A questionnaire with 12
    questions focusing on the application of different oral hygiene aids was developed to
    assess knowledge among dental interns. Six schools were randomly selected for the study
    and intern dentists were included in the study. Statistical Analysis: The collected
    responses were analyzed for descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 393 (87.5%) out of
    449 dental interns participated in the research. The mean knowledge score was found to
    be 5.45±1.71. The maximum and minimum score obtained was 10 and 1 respectively.
    Overall, majority (59.5%) of respondents were found to have average knowledge
    regarding oral hygiene aids. Knowledge in good and excellent categories together was
    found in only 27.3%. Conclusions: The knowledge regarding use of oral hygiene aids
    among dental interns was found to be inadequate. There is a need to emphasize
    significance of maintenance phase of treatment especially by self-care measures. Further
    research regarding

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  • 2- 2- 2- Qualitative Analysis of Student Perceptions Assessing Active Learning Methods in A Therapeutics Course

    Abstract: 

    Objectives: To evaluate the implementation of active learning methods in a therapeutic course from students’ perspective. Methods: The project consisted of two phases of work: Phase I was a fieldwork, where students were exposed to the different active learning methods. Phase II was a feedback from students by interview through conducting focus groups, to assess their preference for each learning method. Results: The students regarded the newly implemented active learning methods as generally helpful in developing most of the skills required for the practice of pharmacy, but there were a number of suggestions for improvement. Conclusion: Students indicated that incorporation of these active learning methods resulted in better academic outcomes including in their examinations.

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  • 2- 2- 3- The Prevalence of Self-Perceived Halitosis Among A Sample of Young Saudi Females Residing In Abha - Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Abstract: 

    Objectives:

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of self-perceived halitosis among a group of young Saudi female patients residing in Abha- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional observational study, an electronic questionnaire was formulated using Google Forms Application, which included 30 questions enquiring factors under investigation. 373 young females residing in Abha responded to the questionnaire. Age range of subjects was (18-45 years). Results: 51.3% of study participants reported self-perceived halitosis, 82.2% of those felt it the most after waking up. 71.9% of those who reported self-perceived halitosis discovered the problem by themselves, 19.6% were told by family or friends, 87% of them never visited a dentist to be diagnosed, 80.9% reported trying to solve the issue without referring to a dentist and 19.1% received a dentist prescribed treatment for halitosis. Conclusions: The prevalence of selfperceived halitosis in our study population is higher than other populations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Dental health care seeking behavior needs to be focused upon, as less than a quarter of the study participants consulted a dentist regarding their halitosis complaint. Further studies are needed to correlate the factors investigated in this study with self-perceived halitosis.

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  • 2- 2- 4- The Bond Strength of the Denture Teeth to the Polyamide Denture Base And the Conventional Heat Cure Acrylic Denture Base

    Abstract: 

    Objectives:

    To examine the debonding of the acrylic teeth to polyamide denture base under bending

    stresses, in comparison to that of the conventional heat cure acrylic denture base. Materials and

    Methods: Eighty maxillary central incisors were divided into two equal groups. Each tooth of Polyamide

    group was prepared with a “T-shaped connected tunnels”in the cingulam using a twist drill. Four wax

    blocks, having ten teeth each ware made and processed with polyamide base. For the acrylic group, four

    wax blocks having ten teeth each were prepared and processed with heat cure acrylic denture base. The

    blocks were mounted on the Instron universal testing machine, and increasing bending loads were applied

    at 135 degrees on the lingual side of each tooth using a 3 mm diameter rod until the tooth was de-bonded

    or the base was fractured. The results were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U Test. Results:

    The mean bond strength of acrylic tooth to polyamide base was24.89Mpa. (load= 176N).There was no

    incidence of tooth debonding in the acrylic group. However, the heat cure acrylic base fractured at an

    average bending load of 316N (stress=44.7Mpa). Conclusion: Within the limitations, this study can

    provide the following conclusions: The polyamide denture base exhibited excellent fracture resistance, but

    the bond between the base and the tooth is significantly less than the fracture resistance of acrylic base.

    There is a significant risk of debonding of the tooth from the polyamide denture base. The bond

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  • 3 - 1 - 1 - RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DENTAL MALOCCLUSION WITH PARENT’S EDUCATIONAL STATUS

    Abstract: 

    Objective: To determine the relationship between prevalence of malocclusion in children and parents educational status. Methods: A total of 2000 Saudi male and female subjects between the ages 12-16 years were selected randomly from secondary schools within Aseer region. Subjects presenting with identified systemic diseases were excluded from the study and were examined for malocclusion using a standard orthodontic assessment form. SPSS software, version 14.0, has been used to analyse the statistics of data thus collected. Results: The prevalence of malocclusion for children of parents with post-doctoral degrees was lowest at 76.6%. Parents with master’s degree show a slightly higher prevalence of malocclusion among their children at 4% and 8% in children of parents with only primary education. The highest prevalence of malocclusion was noted in subjects of the parents with Bachelor’s degrees (at 48%) and with secondary level education at 25%. Conclusion: The study shows that parents with higher levels of education have protective effect on their child’s occlusion probably due to better access to resources and higher level of motivation to interrupt habits which affected the child’s oral health. Further research involving larger sample size and distribution involving multiple co variables should be done to explore the potential role of various risk factors of malocclusion.

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    PDF icon 01-Relationship.pdf (168.96 KB)
  • 3 - 1 - 2 - MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG OPHTHALMOLOGISTS IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Abstract: 

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the most common musculoskeletal disorders among ophthalmologists in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Ophthalmologists throughout the Kingdom were contacted by mail or by person. After obtaining their informed consent, we requested them to fill the Health Status Questionnaire. Results: Out of the 330 ophthalmologists contacted, 150 of them responded, but 43 provided insufficient data and 15 were practicing abroad and they were excluded. The remaining 92 surveys were analyzed for this study. Most of the ophthalmologists complained of low back pain (48%) and neck pain (40%). Other common areas of pain reported were that of the shoulders (27%), mid back (23%), upper back (16%), knee (16%), and gluteal region (15%). Conclusion: The common musculoskeletal disorders among ophthalmologists were found to be low back pain and neck pain. Most of the ophthalmologists believed that abnormal posture during surgery and lack of exercise are the most common reasons for their pain. Many of them reported that pain affected both their professional and personal lives.

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  • 3 - 1 - 3 - RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF LIGHT-BASED SCREENING TECHNIQUES IN DETECTION OF ORAL PREMALIGNANT LESIONS

    Abstract: 

    Objective: To assess and create awareness towards risk factors like Kath chewing and other tobacco related habits and prevalence of premalignant lesions and early detection through light based Screening tool. Methodology: First stage comprised of an interview to get demographic and preliminary data for the study. In the second stage, the entire recruited participants underwent an oral examination, and suspected lesions were further seen by specialist dental surgeon. Exclusion is done by a specialist dentist to group them into clinical types based on clinical provisional diagnosis and are referred for histopathologic examination for further management. Third stage all suspected red and white lesions, inconspicuous lesions are screened by Acetic acid and VElscope to identify & confirm visible changes which required histopathological examination for further definitive treatment options. Result: 75% study subjects showed Aceto-whitening, 9.3% subjects showed negative result and 11.4% subjects showed false positive results and 2.8% projected as No Abnormality Detected in acetic acid test. In VElscope examination, 65.6% Showed Positive Dark areas, followed by 34.3 % False Positive results. There were no negative finding. Positive Predictive Value stands more with age old Acetic acid test (75%) when compared with advance methods like VELscope (65.6%). Conclusion: The oral cavity should be carefully examined in tobacco users. Any changes in color or texture of oral mucosa should arouse suspicion of the presence pre malignant lesions and/or oral cancer. Devices like VELscope can be used as a diagnostic aid for identification of these lesions. However, we have to realize that still the histopathological examination is the most accurate method to confirm the diagnosis.

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    PDF icon 03-Reliability.pdf (140.29 KB)
  • 3 - 1 - 4 - Periodontal health knowledge and oral hygiene behavior among non-teaching staff from Taibah University, Madinah, K.S.A.

    Abstract: 

    Objective: This study was aimed to assess the periodontal diseases awareness and knowledge among non-teaching staff at Taibah University. Material and Methods: This is a questionnaire based cross sectional descriptive study conducted on 450 non-teaching staff (250 male and 200 female) at Taibah University. The questionnaire composed of three parts, socio-demographic, periodontal health knowledge and oral hygiene practice. Results: The periodontal health knowledge were high among females (87%) compared to males (75%) P=0.01. The staffs that were visiting a dentist regularly every 6 months had more good knowledge (91%) P<0.001. There was a significant relation between periodontal health knowledge and tools of cleaning and times of cleaning teeth P<0.001 as well as the participants who got preventive advice had significant relation with the periodontal health knowledge P<0.001. Conclusion and recommendation: The female participants were having high level of periodontal health knowledge and awareness. The staff who were regularly visiting a dentist and cleaning their teeth two time a days with cleaning tools had more periodontal health knowledge. Oral health educational programs and aids, like leaflet written oral hygiene instructions, educational posters and lectures, are needed in the campus of Taibah University.

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    PDF icon 04-Periodontal.pdf (541.91 KB)
  • 3 - 1 - 5 - Bordetella pertussis IgG level among pregnant women and their newborns in Najran, Southwestern, Saudi Arabia, an evidence for urgent update of the local maternal vaccination guidelines

    Abstract: 

    Objective: To determine the pertussis IgG among pregnant women and their newborns at delivery in Najran Maternity and Children Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Methods: paired maternal-neonatal cord blood samples collected at delivery between November 2016 and July 2017 at Najran Maternity and Children hospital. Using ELISA, sera analyzed for pertussis IgG. According to the manufacturer instructions (Diagnostic Automation, INC, DA-B. Pertussis IgG, USA). Results: Out of 271 samples, the maternal mean age was 28 years (range 16-46) and that of gestation age was 38.5 weeks (range 33-42). Forty mothers (14.76%) were seropositive, thirty-five (12.91%) were borderline and 196 (72.32%) were seronegative. Only two (0.73%) infants were seropositive and their maternal antibodies were > 40 U/ml. Conclusion: this is the first report of maternal pertussis immunity from Saudi Arabia, which will stimulate serious discussion on updating maternal vaccination policy in our country. Maternal immunization with Tdap before pregnancy or during the second or third trimester could provide protective immunity to the newborns, covering the gap between birth and the first dose of Tdap. However, still further larger research on safety and effectiveness of maternal vaccination would be very valuable.

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    PDF icon 05-Bordetella.pdf (116.28 KB)
  • 3 - 1 - 6 - CEMENTO-OSSEOUS DYSPLASIA IN THE ANTERIOR MANDIBLE: A CASE OF MISDIAGNOSIS

    Abstract: 

    Osseous dysplasia (Cemento-osseous dysplasias) is relatively common form of fibro osseous lesions (FOLs) in the tooth-bearing regions of the jaw bones. Clinically, most of the Osseous dysplasias (ODs) are asymptomatic and are accidently discovered during routine radiographic examinations. A proper diagnosis of OD is very crucial to avoid misdiagnosis and mismanagement. The histological appearance is similar to other fibro osseous lesions (FOLs) and in numerous cases; Osseous dysplasias have been misdiagnosed as periapical lesions (Periapical abscess, granuloma or cyst), and/or mismanaged by initiation of unnecessary endodontic and surgical interventions. We report a misdiagnosed case of Focal Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia and unnecessary endodontic treatment in a 48 years old woman due to similar radiographic appearance of the lesions during the osteolytic phase of Osseous Dysplasia. This unnecessary invasive treatment could have been minimized or avoided if standard protocols of pulp vitality and a radiographic interpretation were performed carefully.

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  • 3 - 2 - 1 - KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, AWARENESS, AND MOTIVATION OF BLOOD DONATION AMONG ACADEMIC STAFF IN HEALTH COLLEGES IN THE SOUTHERN REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA

    Abstract: 

    Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate and evaluate the knowledge, attitude, awareness, and motivation about blood donation among academic staff in health colleges in Southern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in two universities in the Southern region of Saudi Arabia. The participants were the academic staff in health colleges at King Khalid University, Abha, and Jazan University, Jazan, during 2016. A validated, well-structured questionnaire was used to collectdata. Bivariate logistic regression analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, awareness, and motivation about blood donation among the study participants. Results: The results showed vast knowledge about blood groups among academic staff, which was significantly associated with their educational level (OR, 4.161; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.313– 7.484). Knowledge of the Rhesus blood group system is highly significantly associated with age and educational level of academic staff (OR, 0.018; 95% CI, 0.002–0.142 and OR, 0.311;95% CI, 0.150– 0.643). Awareness of the minimum requirements of blood donation is significantly associated with educational level and profession among academic staff (OR, 1.919;95% CI, 1.482–2.485 and OR, 1.258;95% CI, 1.059–1.494). Conclusion: This study provides a deep insight into the blood donation process among academic staff members in health colleges. The outcome of the study currentreflects an extensive knowledge and positive attitude toward blood donation. The academic staff could play a key role in increasing the awareness about blood donation among their students, which could possibly reflect on the society. 

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  • 3 - 2 - 2 - CYTOMORPHOMETRIC CHANGES OF ORAL MUCOSA DURING NORMAL HORMONAL TURNOVERS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MENSTRUATING WOMEN

    Abstract: 

    Oral mucous membrane is an excellent indicator of the constitutional state of a patient. The oral mucosa is under tropic influence of various hormones and thus reflects the systemic status of an individual. Very few cytomorphometric studies are done to evaluate the role of sex hormones on oral mucosa. This study was done to determine the morphometric changes in a cell and nuclear diameter of exfoliated cells from the oral mucosa during the course of normal menstrual cycle in healthy women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether oral smears reflect hormonal state of menstrual cycle. In this study consisting of 40 study subjects and 20 control subjects, smears were collected from buccal mucosa twice per week for a period of three months. Morphometric analysis of the cell and nuclear diameter was done and results were statistically analysed. Cell diameter showed significant changes during various phases of the menstrual cycle of healthy young women. In Comparison of both study and control groups, no significant changes were seen in cell and nuclear diameter of the exfoliated cells. The present study showed changes in cell diameter of the study group which could be related to the role of female sex hormones. 

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  • 3 - 2 - 3 - MANAGEMENT OF FAILED SUBTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES WITH A PROXIMAL FEMORAL NAIL BY A REVERSE SUPRACONDYLAR LOCKING PLATE

    Abstract: 

    Objective: To show the advantages of distal femoral anatomical locking plates for salvaging failed subtrochanteric femoral fractures.  Material & Methods: 11 patients (9 males, 2 females) with subtrochanteric fractures with nonunion following implantation with a PFN (10 patients) or an interlocking nail (1 patient) were managed by removal of the implant, open reduction, freshening of bony ends, and internal fixation by a reverse supracondylar locking plate along with autogenous corticocancellous bone grafting. All patients were followed up clinically and radiologically. Functional outcomes were assessed in terms of the Harris Hip score.  Results: All patients showed union at an average of 23.2 weeks after revision surgery. The Harris Hip score at the most recent follow-up was 84.6. Functional outcomes were excellent in 18.1%, good in 45.4%, fair in 27.2%, and poor in 9% of patients. Conclusion: A reverse supracondylar locking plate can be used as a viable option for failed primary osteosynthesis in subtrochanteric fractures and is associated with good functional outcome.

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  • 3 - 2 - 4 - PREVALENCE OF RADIX-ENTOMOLARIS IN THE PERMANENT MANDIBULAR FIRST MOLAR AMONG SAUDI SUB-POPULATION

    Abstract: 

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of radix entomolaris (RE) in the permanent mandibular first molars in Saudi Sub-population. Materials & Methods: A total of 2154 radiographs were selected and interpreted by two independent interns for the presence of extra root (RE). 154 radiographs were excluded and 2000 peri-apical radiographs were selected to represent the study sample. Data were analyzed and the prevalence of the RE was then calculated.  Results: Only 144 cases were diagnosis with an RE. The prevalence of RE among Saudi subpopulation who visited the college of dentistry, King Khalid University was 7.2 %. This was evenly distributed in the right (74 cases) and left (70cases) sides, and between males and females with 76 & 68 cases, respectively. Conclusion:  The prevalence of RE in Saudi subpopulation was 7.2 %, which is comparable to others except for mongoloid peoples. Initial diagnosis is essential to avoid ‘missed canals’ and improper treatment planning. Dental practitioners should be able to identify morphologic abnormalities in the permanent mandibular molars to achieve successful and satisfactory endodontic treatment outcome. 

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  • 3 - 2 - 5 - PROLONGED TRANSIENT CEREBELLAR EYE CLOSURE IN A POSTOPERATIVE CEREBELLAR JUVENILE PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA TUMOR RESECTION. CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Abstract: 

    We report one of the longest periods of TCES in a 5-year-old child who underwent cerebellar tumor resection. Our findings suggest that TCES can extend beyond what has been described in the literature. 

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  • ..

    Abstract: 

    Dental trauma is one of the prime reasons for tooth loss in permanent dentition. Horizontal intra alveolar root fractures are rare with an incidence of less than 7% as compared to other dental impact trauma outcomes. Most of the root fractures heal without treatment, complications like pulpal necrosis and resorption may require endodontic intervention.  This case report discusses the management of multiple horizontal intraalveolar fractures in maxillary central incisor. Radiographically multiple healing patterns including the rare type 3 were observed. Combined surgical and non-surgical approaches were used for the management of the fractures. 

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Researches:
  • 4 - 1 - 1 - ROOT RESORPTION AFTER ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Abstract: 

    One of the most feared complications after orthodontic treatment is the external root resorption. Root resorption leads to shortening of root and thus, the integrity of teeth arch is broken down. Both the cervical and apex zones of the roots can be affected by it due to orthodontic forces involved in the tooth movement. The future of the teeth involved may also be compromised due to orthodontic treatment. It is necessary that the patient is pre-informed about the root resorption's risks as a result of orthodontic treatment. It is possible to detect the orthodontic-induced root resorption both during the active phase of treatment and after the orthodontic treatment. The degree and severity of orthodontic-induced root resorption are dependent on a number of factors involving environmental factors and the host himself. The paper talks about the root resorption, its degree of severity, mechanism, detection methods, and significant correlation with individual susceptibility, tooth structure, fixed appliance treatment, orthodontic tooth movement, orthodontic force, and treatment duration.

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  • 4 - 1 - 2 - A STUDY OF STUDENT AWARENESS OF RADIATION PROTECTION SKILLS AT JAZAN UNIVERSITY

    Abstract: 

    Objectives: To evaluate radiology students’ awareness of ionising radiation exposure and its related risks during common diagnostic imaging procedures, to evaluate students’ radiation protection knowledge for assessment of educational processes and clinical training. Materials & Methods: A total of 200 senior students at the Diagnostic Radiology Department were requested to complete a questionnaire consisting of 26 questions. The data were analysed using the statistical package for social sciences software (SPSS). Results: The response rate was 90.5% (181 students). Awareness level depended on student grade point average (GPA), age, and relevant courses attended in radiation. Gender and marital status did not predict awareness of radiation protection standards. Conclusion: Our results showed a general lack of knowledge regarding radiation protection for fourth level students, which slightly improved in the subsequent levels. Including specific courses of radiation protection for medical and dental students is highly recommended. Such courses will improve skills specific to professional handling of radioactivity as well as radiation awareness.

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  • 4 - 1 - 3 - SEVERITY OF PERIODONTAL DISEASES AND GINGIVAL CREVICULAR FLUID (GCF) VOLUME OF SAUDI PATIENTS IN PUBERTAL STAGE BEING TREATED WITH SOME RESTORATIVE DENTAL MATERIALS

    Abstract: 

    Objective: The restorative materials on tooth surfaces are predisposing factors for periodontal diseases due to an increase in plaque formation and inflammation of the adjacent gingiva. The attachment of dental plaque to dental restorations is more than that to the tooth surface as a result of specific characteristics of restorative materials like surface free energy inherent and surface roughness. The present study designed to assess the severity of periodontal diseases and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume of the Saudi patients in pubertal stage who treated by some restorative dental materials. Subjects and Methods: This clinical study conducted on 120 patients aged between 15-21 years old. The study included three equal groups (40 patients each), 50% males and 50% females. The examined restoration types were: composite resin, amalgam and glass ionomer fillings. After six weeks of dental restorations, the following periodontal parameters: plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) in mm recorded for each restored tooth, then the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected . Finally, the data analyzed by SPSS to evaluate the periodontal status. Results: The results of the present study revealed that there were differences in all periodontal parameters in the comparison between group I, II and III but without statistical significance differences except CAL (p ˂ 0.5), moreover, there were significant differences in GCF volume between group I, II and III.(p<0.05). Conclusion: After six weeks we concluded that there was a significant impact of composite resin, amalgam and glass ionomer fillings on the clinical parameters and GCF volume where we observed that the clinical parameters and GCF volume of amalgam restorations more higher than composite resin and glass ionomer fillings restorations.

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  • 4 - 1 - 4 - LIP REPOSITIONING SURGERY AND ITS SEQUELAE IN THE TREATMENT OF A GUMMY SMILE: A CASE REPORT

    Abstract: 

    Excessive gingival display, also known as “gummy smile” has several etiologies. A gummy smile is a drawback for the esthetics and social behavior of various patients. Lip repositioning surgery confers predictable results. However, lip repositioning surgery is indicated in patients with a hyperactive upper lip, while gummy smile owing to altered passive tooth eruption and vertical maxillary excess need to be addressed with crown lengthening and orthognathic surgeries, respectively. Lip repositioning surgery is an uncomplicated procedure, which reduces the muscular pull on the upper lip to achieve minimal display of dento-gingival unit while smiling. Nonetheless, few authors question the relapse of the lip position. This report describes a case showing satisfactory results with lip repositioning surgery and after 1 year follow-up shows a nonsignificant relapse in the position of the upper lip. Hence, lip repositioning surgery is a safe and predictable approach for gummy smiles with negligible relapse.

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    PDF icon 4.Saad_.pdf (1.05 MB)
  • 4 - 1 - 5 - UNCONVENTIONAL SINGLE - VISIT INTERIM PROSTHESIS – A CASE REPORT

    Abstract: 

    Replacement of missing anterior teeth is of utmost importance for esthetics and function. Fixed partial dentures (FPDs) are the most commonly used prostheses but are usually associated with failure either due to faulty fabrication, inadequate retention, or negligence in maintenance by the patient. During fabrication of new FPDs, transitional prostheses have an important role in providing esthetics and function to the patient. The aim of the current work was to provide adequate esthetics to a patient during the treatment period. During the transition phase of fabrication, a new fixed partial denture, patients should be provided with an interim prosthesis. In this case report, interim prosthesis was fabricated using acrylic resin. The contours of existing fixed prosthesis were duplicated, and an unconventional interim prosthesis was fabricated in single-visit for a young adult female patient with failed anterior fixed partial dentures. Step by step treatment was carried out to fabricate the interim prosthesis for the patient. The interim prosthesis fabricated was clinically acceptable. After insertion of the prosthesis, the patient and her family were satisfied with the esthetics. During follow-up as well, the patient was satisfied with the prosthesis and did not show any discomfort. The unconventional approach for the fabrication of an interim prosthesis used herein for a young adult female patient fulfilled the requirements of the patient and successfully protected the tissues during the fabrication of the final prosthesis.

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