5 -1 - 1 - Dermatologists’ Knowledge Towards Computed Tomography Radiation dose in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Objective: To assess the knowledge of Saudi dermatologists regarding protection against hazards of ionizing radiation during computed tomography (CT) procedure. Methods: It was a cross-sectional research design, comprising of dermatologists. A study questionnaire was designed and developed by the researcher, which included personal characteristics of the participants and statements on their knowledge regarding risks of exposing patients to ionizing radiation during radiological investigations. Results: This study included 120 dermatologists. The majority of participants (93.3%) did not attend any course on protection against ionizing radiation. Only 19.2% were familiar with the ALARA principle, while 51.7% were aware of a link between radiation exposure and increased risk of developing cancer. Recommended dose limits (1.7%) concern about radiation doses delivered to patients (31.79%) from requested CT, and alternative imaging investigations (80%) other than CT known to the participants, was found unsatisfactory. Most participants (86.7%) had poor knowledge regarding exposure to ionizing radiation. Attending courses on radiation protection was significantly associated with better knowledge (p<0.001). Conclusion: Knowledge of most Saudi dermatologists regarding hazards of ionization radiation is poor. This can be attributed to their lack of exposure to any courses on radiation protection. Awareness of Dermatologists can be done by conducting more workshops and associated seminars, in order to enhance their knowledge regarding this issue.
5 -1 - 2 - Dental Students Awareness Towards Research at King Khalid University, College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia
Objectives: To evaluate the attitude toward and knowledge of dental research among dental students in a teaching institute in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted at the King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia, from July 2018 to January 2019. A total of 137 final year dental students and interns were provided with an online survey questionnaire designed in English and Arabic. Results: Ninety (males, 64; females, 26) students and interns responded to the questionnaire. More than half of the participants showed a positive attitude towards the importance of research and its incorporation in the dental curriculum. However, the majority of the students and interns demonstrated limited knowledge about research activities. Conclusion: The students and interns in this cohort demonstrated moderate attitudes towards and limited knowledge of research. The provision of intensive training and adequate support in research activities at the undergraduate level may help improve the perception of dental students towards research.
5 -1 - 3 - Adult Bronchial Asthma in Al-Baha Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors
Objectives: To report the occurrence and determinants of adult BA in Al Baha area, south western Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on adults visiting primary health care (PHC) centers. The Arabic form of the ISAAC survey was used. The occurrence of wheeze in the previous 12 months was exercised to specify the occurrence of BA. Results: The study comprised 821 persons. The prevalence rate of BA was 17.7% (95% CI: 15.2 – 20.4). Those having wheezes in the past year had up to 3 attacks of wheezes (116, 80%), sleep disturbance once (45, 31%), wheezy chest after exercise (67.6%, 98) and dry cough at night (69.0%, 100). In a multivariable analysis, determinants significantly associated with BA were; living in rural regions (aOR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.50 – 3.39), ever smoked (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.15 – 2.75) and having cats at home (aOR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.15 – 6.34). Conclusion: The prevalence of BA in Al Baha denotes a public health issue. The study revealed some modifiable factors significantly associated with BA in adults. There is a necessity to adjust asthma screening activities at PHC level particularly at countryside areas. In addition, improving community-based health promotion programs including smoking cessation are needed.
5 -1 - 4 - Health related quality of life of adolescent school aged students in southwestern Saudi Arabia
Objectives: The present work aimed to measure the quality of life among adolescents in Abha City in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed targeting all male and female students enrolled in Abha secondary schools. The Arabic version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (condensed edition) was used. Results: The study included 400 students. The reported average score of quality of life ranged from 60.6 for the physical health domain to 70.8 for the environmental domain. Factors that significantly affect the physical health domain were age, gender, nationality, mothers’ education, and monthly income. Regarding the psychological health domain, the significant determinants were age, gender, birth order, parental status, and income. As for the social relationship domain, the only significant factor was age. Regarding the environment domain, the significant determinants were birth order and income. Conclusion: The study augments evidence to boost relations between individual characters, lifestyle health behaviors, and quality of life among adolescents so that health managers, health instructors, and health advocates can create and execute relevant plans and services to specific groups to improve their quality of life.
Objective: The study aims to determine the influence of FHP on cervical proprioception in dentists. Method: In the study, 84 dentists were divided into two groups based on their craniovertebral (CV) angle: the FHP group (44 subjects with mean age 34.95 ± 6.68 years and CV angle 49 or less) and a healthy group (40 subjects with mean age 29.80 ± 6.46 years, CV angle 49). CV angle: an angle formed between a line extending from 7th cervical vertebrae (C7) to the tragus of the ear and a horizontal line passing through C7. The cervical Joint Position Error (JPE) testing is performed as an estimate of cervical proprioception in sagittal (flexion, extension) and transverse plane (rotation to the left and the right). Three trials of JPE’s were tested in each direction, and the mean of these errors is used for analysis. Results: There were significant differences between the FHP and healthy subjects in the cervical JPEs (p<0.001) in all four directions. There was a weak to moderate negative correlation between the CV angle and the JPEs tested. Conclusion: The dentists with FHP demonstrated reduced cervical proprioception. Changes in the length-tension relationship in cervical musculature due to FHP may affect cervical position sense. Also, cervical proprioception may become worse as the degree of FHP increases.
5 -1 - 6 - The Comparative Efficacy of Endoscopic Versus Microscopic Approach in Myringotomy with Ventilation Tube Insertion
Objectives: This study aimed to compare the outcomes of myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion when performed using endoscopic-assisted devices compared to the same surgery when performed using the traditional microscopic method. Method: A prospective trial approach was chosen in which 26 patients were involved, was used in this study of tube placement. Patients were separated into two groups with 13 patients each: (1) Group A and (2) Group B. Group A patients underwent myringotomy and ventilation surgery tube insertion using an endoscopic device, while Group B underwent the same surgical procedure using a traditional microscope. Both groups were assessed after one week of the surgery. After that, the patients were assessed monthly. Results: It was found that both methods are safe and achieve satisfactory tube placement; however, there was a significant statistical difference in the time required for the procedures. In the endoscopic technique, the average time was 9.9 ± 3.7 mins, whereas the average time in the microscopic method was 10.3 ± 5.7 mins. The endoscopic method required less time compared to the traditional microscopic method. Conclusion: Endoscopic myringotomy and ventilation tube placement requires less time than the traditional microscopic method. The endoscopic method enables the surgeons more to visualize the entire ear canal and tympanic membrane; thus, better surgical outcomes could be achieved.
5 -1 - 7 - Radiation Dose Measurements in Intraoral and Panoramic Dental Radiography in the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia
Objective: This study aims to estimate patient radiation doses for intraoral and panoramic dental radiography in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: For intraoral units, the radiation doses were measured in terms of incident air kerma, Ki, and the detector was placed at 50 cm from the focus point. For panoramic dental radiography, the radiation doses were measured in terms of air Kerma-area product, PKA, using a calibrated CT ionization chamber. Results: For intraoral, the values for the estimated incidence of air kerma, Ki, ranged from 1.25 to 4.61 mGy (average: 2.55 mGy). For panoramic, the values for estimated Kerma-area product, PKA, values ranged from 79.5 to 122.1 mGy.cm2 (average: 99 mGy.cm2) for adults and ranged from 43.3 to 80.2 mGy.cm2 (average: 58.5mGy.cm2) for paediatrics. Conclusion: The study’s outcomes were compared with previous studies from other countries, indicating similar or slightly higher values. These results could serve as baseline data for radiation protection optimization and the development of national diagnostic reference levels in Saudi Arabia.
5 -1 - 8 - Retrospective Cross-sectional Radiographic Assessment of the Quality of Posterior Composite Restorations and Prevalence of Associated Periodontal Changes
Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the type of errors associated with inadequate restorations and the prevalence of periodontal changes associated with disease in the inadequate restorations. Materials and Method: Two hundred and eighty digital panoramic radiographs were evaluated by two independent observers. Teeth with interproximal restorations being observed on these examinations were classified according to the tooth restored, the quality of interproximal restoration and the presence of periodontal changes. Results: Out of the 4480 teeth evaluated 38% had restorations and among those 47% were considered to be inadequate by the evaluators. The main error detected was an over contoured (42%) followed by under contoured (31%) restoration. Periodontal changes were associated with 69% of the inadequate restorations and more of the molars had problems when compared to premolars. Conclusion: This study has investigated the prevalence of periodontal changes associated with posterior proximal composite resin restorations. It has found a high association between the presence of periodontal changes and proximal restorations and also that the restorations in molars tend to have more problems than premolars.